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Midlands Integrative Biosciences Training Partnership (MIBTP) CASE Studentship - Minimising food loss and waste through breeding - Uncovering the physiological and genetic control of brown heart in Brassica napus

Other - Non Specified Department

Location:  Newport, Shropshire TF10 8NB
Post Type:  Full Time
Closing Date:  23.59 hours BST on Sunday 28 August 2022
Interview Date:  To be confirmed
Reference:  MH-R-RHH-R5-LV-R-

Minimising food loss and waste through breeding - Uncovering the physiological and genetic control of brown heart in Brassica napus

Primary supervisor: Dr Laura Vickers, Department of Agriculture and Environment

Non-academic partner: Elsoms Seeds Ltd

Project Title: Minimising food loss and waste through breeding - Uncovering the physiological and genetic control of brown heart in Brassica napus

Project description:

Please note this project is open to those students who qualify for Home fees only. We are unable to consider international applicants unless you qualify for Home (UK) fee status.

One of the largest limitations to food security is food loss and waste. Crop discolouration at harvest or postharvest in root vegetables can lead to significant crop losses, as crops are less appealing for consumers (Adams and Brown, 2007; Aschemann-Witzel et al., 215). Understanding the genetic and environmental factors that can cause crop discolouration can reduce this wastage through the identification of resilient genotypes and adjusting growing practises. 


The Fresh Produce Research Centre at HAU collaborates with the University of Warwick and Elsoms Seeds Ltd to investigate postharvest discolouration in a number of different crops. We have previously identified resilient genotypes and practises from crop production to postharvest processing that can alleviate or contribute to crop discolouration. This project is a continuation of these existing collaborations, and will look at a type of discolouration that occurs in Swede called brown heart. 

Brown heart in Swedes is a condition where the subcutaneous tissue of the crop turns brown and looks glassy. It has been linked to boron deficiencies in the soil (Smith and Anderson, 1955), however, recent work has indicated that brown heart incidence and severity are influenced by genotype (Fadhel et al., 2015; Riordan, 2019). We believe brown heart maybe determined by the genetic and or physiological control in boron concentration and distribution in plant tissue. We have identified some varieties that seem more resistant to this disorder and we want to test our hypothesis that boron tissue distribution may play a role. It is this area the Doctoral Researcher will explore as well as trying to understand the underlying physiological and genetic mechanisms that determine susceptibility to discolouration. The Doctoral Researcher will also be encouraged to explore potential agronomic practices that might help mitigate against discolouration occurrence. 


The Doctoral Researcher working on this project will gain an array of scientific skills from exposure to a broad range of experimental techniques, ranging from the field to the laboratory. They will also gain an extensive network of both academic and industry contacts, an insight into industry practises and know their research outputs are having real immediate effects on food security. This project will be a very rewarding project for an ambitious candidate, that will produce a well-rounded researcher with excellent employment prospects. 


The proposed research objectives of the project are to;

  1. Establish abiotic and agronomic (cultivation) factors affecting brown heart. This will involve field trials at Harper Adams, Elsoms’ grower sites and glasshouse trials. These trials would explore the impacts of boron soil concentration, irrigation, and humidity on brown heart, as well as phenotype a known mapping population for the disorder across varying environmental conditions.
  2. Explore the physiological mechanisms underlying brown heart formation in Swede. This could involve SEM microscopy at Harper Adams, fluorescence assays and confocal microscopy at Warwick University.
  3. Explore the molecular control of brown heart between resistant and susceptible Swede lines. This would involve transcriptomics using RNA-seq of resistant and susceptible lines. Further qRT-PCR analysis of candidate gene expression. SDS-PAGE protein analysis and proteomics between resistant and susceptible lines.
  4. Identify candidate genes within the QTL loci, to inform future marker assisted selection swede breeding programs at Elsoms. This could involve using the data generated in objective 1, to build on existing QTL analysis by Elsoms in constructing updated genetic maps (at Warwick). It could lead to the generation of plasmid constructs GM/CRISPR overexpression and knockout mutants.

This project is available through the MIBTP programme. The successful applicant will join the MIBTP cohort and will take part in all of the training offered by the programme. For further details please visit the MIBTP website.


References

Adams, J. B. and Brown, H. M. 2007. Discoloration in Raw and Processed Fruits and Vegetables. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition , 47:3, 319-333, DOI: 10.1080/10408390600762647

Aschemann-Witzel J, De Hooge I, Amani P, Bech-Larsen T, Oostindjer M. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action. Sustainability. 2015; 7(6):6457-6477. DOI: https: // doi.org/10.3390/su7066457

Fadhel, F., Jellings, A., Kennedy, S. and Fuller, M. 2015. Genotypic resistance to brown heart incidence in swede parent lines and F1 hybrids and the influence of applied boron. The Journal of Agricultural Science , 153 (2), 195-204. DOI:10.1017/SO021859613000889

Riordan, H. E. 2019. Investigating the genetic control of boron concentrations in Brassica napus. PhD thesis, University of York. Embargoed until Nov 2022.

Smith, A. M. and Anderson G. 1955. The relationship between the boron content of soils and swede roots. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Volume 6, 3 pp157-162




 

Contact: Dr Laura Vickers, Harper Adams University




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Harper Adams University is one of the premier UK Higher Education institutions focused on the land-based and food supply chain sector. With around 2,800 undergraduate students, plus those completing postgraduate, research and CPD programmes, Harper Adams University is the UK's largest single provider of higher education for these subjects.  Programmes fall into eleven broad subject areas – but none operate in isolation. Community and collaboration are key at Harper Adams, meaning everyone, including staff, students and industry partners, benefits from a close network of knowledge and opportunity exchange. Situated in Shropshire, the campus and the surrounding area provide an excellent working and living environment for staff and students alike.

Harper Adams is consistently positioned highly in a range of national ratings, performance measures and league tables. The University has been the highest performing modern university in The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide for the last four years, climbing to 17th place in the overall league table. In the 2020 guide Harper Adams was named Modern University of the Year and runner-up University of the Year. In the 2019 Whatuni? Student Choice Awards, based on student reviews, Harper Adams won the Student Support category for the fifth time – the only university to have taken the title since the awards began - and won the category for best job prospects for a fourth year running. In the 2020 QS World Rankings for Agriculture and Forestry published in March 2020, Harper Adams was ranked first in the UK for academic reputation and second in the world for its reputation with employers.


Applied research is at the heart of the university’s activity, with the work of a thriving academic community underpinning both teaching and work with the industries allied to Harper. The 2014 Government Research Excellence Framework rated all of the university’s research as “of international quality”, and more than half was deemed “world leading” or “internationally excellent”.
 


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